EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE PLANS
Planned maintenance has to begin with a plan in mind. Developing preventive maintenance
tasks or procedures for your plant or facility without a solid plan will result in inconsistent and
unreliable procedures. Because it is important to document the development process, build-in
consistency, and develop a good understanding of expected results, the Equipment Maintenance
Plan is a powerful tool.
The Equipment Maintenance Plan, or EMP as it is commonly called, is a document, in table
format, that is used when developing the tasks needed to properly maintain facility, plant, or
process equipment. The EMP helps lead the person or persons developing the required
maintenance tasks for equipment by ensuring that the development is done consistently the same
way for all equipment. Each EMP developed should be composed of one or more maintenance
tasks designed to ensure the continued operation and maintenance of an equipment item, process,
Each of these tasks has the following characteristics:
• A descriptive title for each maintenance task to be performed
• A frequency assigned for performance of each task or tasks
• Assignment of a specific craft or workgroup and the number of each craft or
workgroup required to perform the task
• Equipment Condition required for performance of the task (i.e. running or
• Type of Work – Preventive Maintenance (PM), Predictive Maintenance (PdM),
Corrective Maintenance (CM), Situational Maintenance (SIT), etc…
• Procedure Number – Unique identifier for the task or file name if linked to
another document that gives the individual task instructions.
• Estimated time to perform the task.
• Special Tools, Materials and Equipment required performing the task.
The EMP can also provide the following additional planning and budgeting information if set up
properly in a spreadsheet format:
• Annualized hours for performance of the task
• Annualized hours for shut down of the equipment during performance of the task
• Annualized hours for performance of the task by craft.
Each EMP consists of the following defined sections that contain specific information ( See
example EMP at the end of this article - Download Spreadsheet HERE )
• Equipment Type – this is where the equipment type or class to which the
applicable Maintenance Tasks, i.e. fans, centrifugal pumps, belt conveyors, etc. is identified
• Description – identifies the specific equipment that is covered by the EMP,
usually the equipment number and description, as listed in the CMMS is used here
• Location –identifies the physical location of the equipment within the Plant or
• Documentation –lists what technical documentation is available and where it is
stored or maintained
• Validated – this area requires a "yes" or "no" indication of whether or not the
equipment nameplate data has been validated.
Maintenance Task Description:
• Item Number - identifies each of the Maintenance Tasks listed on the EMP giving
each a line item number
• Maintenance Task Description - this area is where the very brief description of the
work to be performed is entered, i.e. Clean and Lubricate Pump, Inspect and
Lubricate Fan, etc.
• Frequency - identifies the frequency at which the maintenance task is to be
performed, i.e. 7 days, 30 days, 90 days, 180 days, 365 days, etc. Usually days are
used rather than weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc. Meter based frequencies can also be
used, i.e. 100 Hrs, 500 Hrs, etc. Situational frequencies based on inspection results
can also be included.
Task Support Information:
• Craft - identifies the type of craft or skill required to perform the maintenance
task, i.e. MECH, ELECT, CONTR, etc.
• Craftsmen Required - indicates the number or crafts persons required to perform
• Equipment Condition - the equipment must be running or shutdown when certain
maintenance tasks are performed, this condition is indicated here
• Type - the type of maintenance task is entered here, i.e. PM, PdM, CM, etc.
• Procedure/Task # - this is where the unique procedure or task number is entered,
typically this will be the unique identifier used in a CMMS or a file name.
• Est. Time (Hrs) - This is where the estimated time to complete the task is entered,
this is an educated estimate based on previous experience or established
• Special Tools/Materials/Remarks - identifies any special tools not usually carried
in a craftsman's toolbox, i.e., torque wrenches, man-lifts, ladders, etc. or a
hazardous waste container, personal protective equipment, etc. and any additional
remarks that apply specifically to performance of the task.
• Annual (Hrs) - this section is used to calculate the total annual hours required to
perform each specific maintenance task
• Annual Scheduled Maintenance Hrs - this section is used to total all the annual
hours required to perform all the maintenance tasks listed on the EMP
• Annual Shutdown Hrs - this section is used to calculate the required hours of
shutdown needed to perform all the maintenance tasks listed on the EMP
• Annual Operator Hrs - this section is used to calculate the total hours of Operator
time needed to perform the maintenance tasks listed on the EMP
• Annual Mechanic Hrs - this section is used to calculate the total hours of
Mechanic time needed to perform the maintenance tasks listed on the EMP
• Annual Electrician Hrs - this section is used to calculate the total hours of
Electrician time needed to perform the maintenance tasks listed on the EMP
• Annual Contractor Hrs - this section is used to calculate the total hours of
Contractor time needed to perform the maintenance tasks listed on the EMP.
You can develop an EMP for each equipment item, type of equipment, or system. It is
generally best to develop the EMP for each type or class of equipment and then apply the
identified maintenance to all the equipment you have that is of the same type or class.
When you have the same type of equipment, but in different operating environments, you
may want to develop separate EMPs for each of them and apply different frequencies,
man-hours, and special tools/materials to each. The EMP is a very flexible document and
can be used to accommodate almost any need for maintenance requirement development.
Use it the way it best fits your needs and specific requirements.
When developing EMPs you are defining the tasks or procedures and all associated
information needed for the proper maintenance of your equipment. You must first
determine what equipment you want to include in the maintenance program and develop
EMPs for those equipment items. Consider the criticality of your equipment before you
start and develop EMPs for the most critical equipment first.
Once you know what equipment you will be including in the maintenance program you
need to gather the needed information to develop the required maintenance. Gather the
equipment information that you want to include in your maintenance records, this is
generally the equipment nameplate data, including manufacturer, model number, serial
number, electrical characteristics, specifications, operating parameters, etc. It is always
best to get as much information directly off the equipment nameplate as possible because
vendor manuals, equipment drawings, etc. do not usually provide all the useable
information and many times it is not accurate.
Next, you need to gather the documentation available for the equipment. This is
generally vendor operation and maintenance manuals, catalog cuts, shop drawings,
construction drawings, P&IDs, parts lists, and exploded views. You need these to
develop the equipment specific maintenance tasks and special tools and materials list.
It is always best to consider the manufacturer's recommended maintenance for
equipment, but you must also consider the operating environment that your equipment is
working in and the frequency of operation. You would not want to change the oil in the
pedestal of a pump on a quarterly frequency if the pump is in a clean environment and is
operated very infrequently. Nor would you want to change the oil in an engine on an
annual basis if the engine runs very frequently and is in a harsh environment. You must
consider the operating context of the equipment and make informed decisions on
After you have determined the maintenance tasks that need to be performed the next
thing to include on the EMP is the skilled craft required to perform the maintenance.
These crafts or skills are generally the same as those employed at the facility or plant. It
is not unusual though to include maintenance tasks that require skills that are not
available in house and must be contracted out. For these you may enter "CONT" or
another code for the contracted craft designation.
The number of craftsmen needed is also important. If more than one person is needed it
must be identified and included so the man-hours calculated for the year will reflect using
the extra personnel. Although some tasks must be multi-craft, it is recommended that the
each maintenance task be developed for a specific craft. Develop single craft
requirements, and then schedule multi-crafts together as required.
The type of maintenance, for example, preventive (PM), corrective (CM), predictive
(PdM) and situational (SIT) (based on meter hours, analysis results, special events, etc.)
is to be identified and included in the "TYPE" column.
If you are assigning unique procedure/task codes or numbers to each maintenance
procedure the first thing to decide is the format for these numbers or codes. It is
extremely important to only use codes that can be accepted by your computerized
maintenance management system or work order system. Even if you do not have to meet
the criteria for a computer program it is important to use a consistent and logical number
or code that is easily recognized.
An estimated time required to perform the maintenance task is used to determine what the
annual man-hour requirement will be for planning and budgeting. This estimated time
should include the total time it will take to perform the maintenance action. Only enter
the time it would take for one person to do their part of the work. If you are using a
spreadsheet to develop the EMP, and the formulas are set up correctly, the time will be
multiplied by the number of craftsmen and the frequency to determine the annual manhours.
The special tools and materials that are required to perform the maintenance also need to
be captured and included on the EMP. These can be as simple as the need for a torque
wrench that is not normally found in the mechanics toolbox. These can also be major
items like a man-lift, refrigerant recovery machine, boiler combustion test kit, etc.
The planning and budgeting section of the EMP should include the right information for
maintenance tasks listed on the specific EMP. For example, you do not want to list
annual operators hours in this section unless you have identified operators as the craft
required for a maintenance task. It is also important to change your formulas as
necessary if you are using them for automatic calculations in a spreadsheet application.
You now have all the valuable information needed to develop your planned maintenance
tasks and planning and budgeting for those actions in one location.
are now on the path to Maintenance Excellence!
You can download the below spread sheet FREE of Charge from HERE.